GPS/GNSS Interference, Jamming, & Spoofing

Vulnerability analysis and mitigation

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GPS/GNSS Interference, Jamming, & Spoofing

Vulnerability analysis and mitigation

GNSS Vulnerabilities Jamming Spoofing

GNSS Vulnerabilities: Interference

Despite their spread spectrum modulation, GPS satellite signals are vulnerable to interference because of their extremely low power (approximately -160 dBW), and real-world incidents that result in disruption to GNSS have been rapidly rising. Interference can be unintentional and naturally-occurring, such as atmospheric scintillation and solar effects—or deliberate, such as jamming or spoofing. The U.S. DHS report, Resilient PNT Conformance Framework, released December 16, 2020, outlines 4 levels of PNT resilience in the face of interference. Spirent Federal’s test methodologies and test plans can help map interference effects on MGUE (Military GPS User Equipment) to standards such as these. Customers can analyze equipment response and test mitigation techniques to increase the accuracy, resilience, and performance of their PNT systems.

Read about our latest interference testing innovations

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Stuart Smith, Senior Manager, Strategic Marketing, from Spirent Communications, gives a product demonstration of the GSS9000 wavefront simulator for Multi-Element CRPA testing. This video is a 5-minute preview; view the full 25-minute product demo here


MGUE developers and integrators should understand jamming risks so they can implement mitigation measures that ensure receivers are protected. Understanding receiver performance in a wide range of realistic jamming scenarios is an important part of that process, and simulation is essential to characterize and compare performance in repeatable conditions. There are multiple ways to simulate jamming with a Spirent simulator, such as the GSS7765 interference simulator and the embedded interference ground transmitter (GTx) for phase calibrated wavefront simulation.  The most recent interference waveform to be added to Spirent’s portfolio is the Blue Force Electronic Attack (BFEA).  Users also have the ability to introduce their own custom waveforms.

Read GNSS Jamming white paper

Paul Crampton and Roger Hart, senior engineers at Spirent Federal, introduce emulation techniques for spoofing threat analysis & mitigation. This video is a brief preview; view the full 11-minute product demo here


Signal spoofing is transmitting fake GNSS signals to force a receiver into reporting an inaccurate time and position. Spoofing incidents have increased rapidly, making spoofing a growing threat to mission-critical operations. An integral part of our focus at Spirent Federal is to stay ahead of the constantly-evolving threats to PNT data, of which spoofing is a particularly concerning example. To this end, Spirent has included the most sophisticated and advanced spoofing emulation capabilities inherent in the GSS9000 simulator. The SimSAFE software tool can be added to a GSS9000 or GSS7000 to further automate spoofing attacks, test receiver mitigation techniques, and monitor the output of attacked receivers.

Learn the types of spoofing attacks

Ajay Vemuru, Director of PNT Simulation/Other Sensors at Spirent Communications, discusses multipath interference and Sim3D


Obscuration, as well as the reflection and diffraction of signals known as multipath, can be one of the main sources of error in a GNSS receiver. Multipath errors can vary from a few meters to hundreds of meters according to satellite geometry and the receiver environment. The characterization and study of multipath is complex but important, as its effects need to be compensated for in most positioning, navigation, or timing solutions. With this in mind, Spirent developed Sim3D, an innovative solution for advanced 3D environment modeling and real-time signal propagation simulation.

Read Understanding Multipath ebook

Sim3D Simulation

Spirent Sim3D Shows the Way Ahead for Realistic Multipath Simulation

LONDON, August 28, 2019 – Spirent Communications plc (LSE:SPT), the world leader in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) testing solutions, has announced the availability of its innovative multipath simulation solution, Spirent Sim3D. The 3D modeling solution enables the testing of realistic multipath and obscuration effects on GNSS signals in a true-to-life synthetic environment. Historically, researchers […]

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Adaptive Antennas Jamming Spoofing

Challenges of Testing Adaptive GNSS Antennas for Jamming and Spoofing Protection

NOTE: This blog is a summary of a webinar presented with DLR on Wednesday 18th November 2020. You can access the on-demand webinar here. The GNSS threat landscape is evolving, and sophisticated new techniques are needed to protect GNSS-reliant equipment against RF threat sources such as jamming and spoofing. One such technique is adaptive antenna technology. […]

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GPS Spoofing

GPS Spoofing: New Live Sky Tests Confirm Receivers Are Vulnerable to Attack

It was once considered an esoteric and theoretical type of cyberattack, seen only in James Bond films and academic papers. But radio frequency (RF) location spoofing is now causing real concern for users of GPS and GNSS receivers. The recent emergence of software-defined radios has made spoofing much easier to carry out. By broadcasting a […]

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